# Author name: QuantumPhysicsMadeSimple.com

## The 4 Kinds Of Fundamental Forces

There’s four different kinds of fundamental forces, but as we will see later some of them have been unified and it’s thought that they are all the same force only in different “modes”, but for the sake of simplicity we will first talk about them as different forces. Fermions And Bosons And About Real And Virtual Particles Bosons are the particles which transmits the different forces between the matter particles, they normally have a whole number spin, 0, 1 or 2. And Fermions which are matter particles they often have spin. Real particles are the ones you are familiar with, …

## Multiplication With Matrices

Matrix multiplication is a bit more difficult, but not much.Instead of multiplying number by number as in addition of subtraction you multiply the rows of the matrix on the left side of the equation by the columns in the matrix on the right side of the equation. If we have the two matrices: æA Bö and æC Dö èa bø èc dø Then we start of by taking the first row in the first matrix: æA Bö * æC Dö èa bø èc dø And multiply it to the second matrix first column æA Bö * æC Dö èa bø …

## Addition & Subtraction With Matrices

We’ll start with an example:company A’s total profit one quarter is;first quarter: 100, second quarter 200, third quarter 300, and fourth quarter 400.And company B’s total profit one quarter is;first quarter: 400, second quarter 300, third quarter 200, and fourth quarter 100.This you can write as: profit quarter: 1 2 3 4 company A 100 200 300 400 company B 400 300 200 100 Or just: æ100 200 300 400öè400 300 200 100ø Lets say that their profit change to the double the next quarter then we get the total profit for those two quarters is: æ100 200 300 400ö …

## What Is A Matrix?

Well a matrix is a thing where you can store and modify data efficaciously. To define a matrix you need to define how many rows and columns it has. This is done by first taking the rows number, lets say 2 and then the columns number lets say 3. This we would call a 2×3 matrix, and it would look like this: æx x xöèx x xø

## Symmetry Breaking & Quantum Physics

We and every thing around us seems to be made out of matter alone. We don’t observe any anti-matter laying around, why is that? In the Big Bang there should theoreticly have been created the same amount of matter as anti-matter. and therefor this matter and anti-matter should have annihalated each other, leaving nothing but radiation behind, so clearly this was not the case. But wait a minute, aren’t we jumping to conclusions here? After all, how do we know that the anti-matter didn’t go lumpy and form entire anti-matter galaxys. Well if they did we would see intense gamma …

## Anti-Matter & Quantum Physics

Anti-matter is the same thing as normal matter but with opposite charge and magnetic momentum(magnetic momentum defines how the particle alignes itself to a magnetic field just as a compass needle pooint in some direction to a magnetic field). It’s the magnetic momentum which makes it possible for neutral charged particles(such as the neutron) to have a anti-matter counter part. Even though they have the same electric charge(0) they have the opposite magnetic momentum. (Note: Electromagnetic charge isn’t the only charge which can be reversed at anti-particles. Quarks, for example, also have colour charge which is reversed in their anti-particles.) …

## Quarks & Quantum Physics

Quarks build up particles of the hadron family and hadrons can be devided up in two classes: Baryons which are heavy elementary particles consisting of three quarks, such as the proton and neutron. And mesons which are medium elementary particles consisting of a quark and anti-quark, such as the pions and kaons. Quarks come in six different “flavors”:up, down, top, bottom, strange, charmed.The strange thing about quarks is that they don’t have an whole number charge, like most particles have. Instead they have fractions of charges:up, charmed and top quarks have a +2/3 charge.and down, strange and bottom have -1/3 …

## Hawking Radiation & Black Holes

Black holes do actually radiate, this radiation is dubbed hawking radiation after its discoverer Stephen Hawking. The Hawking radiation was discovered when you incorporate the ideas of quantum mechanics into how a black hole would work. To understand hawking radiation, you must first understand two things: 1. Quantum Vacuum Fluctuations Vacuum is normally described as something completely empty, with no particles what so ever in it. But In quantum mechanics, there’s the heisenbergs uncertainty principal which says that at particle small levels you can’t know every thing to a 100%, the more you know about one thing the less you …

## Black Holes & String Theory

Particles can’t move faster then light, infact if they have mass they can’t even reach the speed of light. This means that degeneracy preassure can’t grow infinetly high in a star, since it depends of the speed of the particles. So when a star more massive then 3 solar masses collapse, degeneracy pressure can’t no longer hold up the massive gravitational pressure produced by the stars mass. The star implodes on itself to zero size and forms a singularity. A singularity is a place with zero volume and an infinetly high density. At the singularity space time is infinitely warped …

## Neutron Stars

When a star is more massive then 2 solar masses, when it starts to collapse the electrons degeneracy pressure will not be enough. The electrons will move more and more furiously until the power produced by their motion will overwhelm the electromagnetic force, which is the force the keeps the electrons around the atom. Now when the electrons are no longer attached to the nucleus of the atom and moves around freely they will collide with protons since positive attracts negative charges. Then the electrons negative charge and the protons positive charge takes each other out and creates a neutral …

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